Some facts about Chemical and Biological molecules


DIfferent type of chemical modulators and their descriptions.
Molecule Type
Description
Action
ACTIVATOR
Positively effects the normal functioning of the protein e.g., opening an ion channel or cleaving a clotting protein precursor
POSITIVE MODULATOR
AGONIST
Binds to and activates a receptor, often mimicking the effect of the endogenous ligand
POSITIVE MODULATOR
ALLOSTERIC ANTAGONIST
Binds to a receptor at an allosteric site and prevents activation by a positive allosteric modulator at that site
NEGATIVE MODULATOR
ANTAGONIST
Binds to a receptor and prevents activation by an agonist through competing for the binding site
NEGATIVE MODULATOR
ANTISENSE INHIBITOR
Prevents translation of a complementary mRNA sequence through binding to it
NEGATIVE MODULATOR
BINDING AGENT
Binds to a substance such as a cell surface antigen, targetting a drug to that location, but not necessarily affecting the functioning of the substance itself
OTHER
BLOCKER
Negatively effects the normal functioning of an ion channel e.g., prevents or reduces transport of ions through the channel
NEGATIVE MODULATOR
CHELATING AGENT
Binds to a substance such as a metal, toxin or metabolite reducing its availability for further interactions
OTHER
CROSS-LINKING AGENT
Induces cross-linking of proteins or nucleic acids
OTHER
HYDROLYTIC ENZYME
Hydrolyses a substrate through enzymatic reaction
OTHER
INHIBITOR
Negatively effects (inhibits) the normal functioning of the protein e.g., prevention of enzymatic reaction or activation of downstream pathway
NEGATIVE MODULATOR
INVERSE AGONIST
Binds to and inactivates a receptor
NEGATIVE MODULATOR
MODULATOR
Effects the normal functioning of a protein in some way e.g., mixed agonist/antagonist or unclear whether action is positive or negative
OTHER
NEGATIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR
Reduces or prevents the action of the endogenous ligand of a receptor through binding to a site distinct from that ligand (non-competitive inhibition)
NEGATIVE MODULATOR
NEGATIVE MODULATOR
Negatively effects the normal functioning of a protein e.g., receptor antagonist, inverse agonist or negative allosteric modulator
NEGATIVE MODULATOR
OPENER
Positively effects the normal functioning of an ion channel e.g., facilitates transport of ions through the channel
POSITIVE MODULATOR
OTHER
Other action type, not clearly postively or negatively affecting the normal functioning of a protein e.g., chelation of substances, hydrolysis of substrate
OTHER
OXIDATIVE ENZYME
Oxidises a substrate through enzymatic reaction
OTHER
PARTIAL AGONIST
Binds to and only partially activates a receptor (relative to the response to a full agonist)
POSITIVE MODULATOR
POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR
Enhances the action of the endogenous ligand of a receptor through binding to a site distinct from that ligand
POSITIVE MODULATOR
POSITIVE MODULATOR
Positively effects the normal functioning of a protein e.g., receptor agonist, positive allosteric modulator, ion channel activator
POSITIVE MODULATOR
PROTEOLYTIC ENZYME
Hydrolyses a protein substrate through enzymatic reaction
OTHER
RELEASING AGENT
Reverses the normal functioning of a transporter, causing release of the substrate, rather than uptake
NEGATIVE MODULATOR
SUBSTRATE
Carried by a transporter, possibly competing with the natural substrate for transport
OTHER